Whatever their foibles — door-slamming, grunting, excessive Snapchatting — teenagers are right about one thing: nobody understands them. This umbra of non-comprehension takes in not just parents, but doctors, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, legal experts and educators.

  G) latter O) versatile


My view is that young people should be encouraged to broaden their horizons. That is the best way for them to get a clear perspective of what they are hoping to do with their lives and why. Students with such a perspective are usually the most effective and motivated ones and taking a year off may be the best way to gain this.


  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it。 Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs。 Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived。 You may choose a paragraph more than once。 Each paragraph is marked with a letter。 Answer the question by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2。

Under the existing law, people under 20 can only get married with the consent of their parents. Men can do so at 18 and women at 16.

剑9 Test 1


  J。 If humans are generally geared to recall details about one another, this pattern is probably even more powerful among teenagers who are hyperattentive to social minutiae: who is in, who is out, who likes whom, who is mad at whom。 Their penchant for social drama is not—or not only—a way of distracting themselves from their schoolwork or of driving adults crazy。 It is actually a neurological(神经的) sensitivity, initiated by hormonal changes。 Evolutionarily speaking, people in this age group are at a stage in which they can prepare to find a mate and start their own family while separating from parents and striking out on their own。 To do this successfully, their brain prompts them to think and even obsess about others。


The obvious argument in its favour is that young children pick up languages much more easily than teenagers. Their brains are still programmed to acquire their mother tongue, which facilitates learning another language, and unlike adolescents, they are not inhibited by self-consciousness.

因此,我们对此就不应感到意外了:全世界(甚至各国内部)对于年轻人有能力做出成人决定的最低年龄界定存在巨大差异。心理学教授劳伦斯?斯坦伯格(Laurence Steinberg)写道:“我们把一位犯下严重罪行的12岁年轻人当作成年人来审讯,因为他们已足够成熟,应该‘知道什么事情不能做’了;与此同时,我们禁止20岁的人买酒,因为他们还不够成熟,无法驾驭酒精:这样一个社会对于如何对待这个年龄区间的人是深感困惑的。”

  C) Its immediate priority is to bring the pest under control。


It is clear then that this situation is not as straightforward as it first appears. It would seem that one of the many duties of parents is to make an informed choice about how many toys they buy for their young ones.

By then, of course, young people are already notching up the social milestones of adulthood: driving, voting, working, living independently, enlisting in the military, drinking, buying guns, marrying and becoming parents. Society will have long sexualised them. And for the digitally connected, the mis-steps of youth are today captured, shared and archived in perpetuity. That collision of adolescent brains with adult norms might underlie some of the darker statistics relating to young people. The leading causes of adolescent death are, respectively, road accidents, HIV and suicide.

  Over the next year and a half investigators will test the various strains of saline-tolerant rice they’ve concocted。 In 2018, farmers will plant the varieties with the most promise in the Ebro Delta and Europe’s other two main rice-growing regions—along the Po in Italy, and France’s Rhône。 A season in the field will help determine which, if any, of the varieties are ready for commercialization。

Separately, the bill will allow 18 and 19-year-olds to sign contracts for mobile phones and credit cards.


Flowering bodies, however, are governed by childish brains. Prof Steinberg points out that the young brain continues maturing into the mid-20s. Neurodevelopmental changes depend partly on hormones and can drive pleasure-seeking, risky and impulsive behaviour. Accordingly, Professor Steinberg extends adolescence’s dominion to between the ages of 10 and 25.

  I。 The study also found that when subjects thought about and later recalled descriptions in terms of their informational content, regions associated with factual memory, such as the medial temporal lobe, became active。 But thinking about or remembering descriptions in terms of their social meaning activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex—part of the brain‘s social network—even as traditional memory regions registered low levels of activity。 More recently, as he reported in a 2012 review, Lieberman has discovered that this region may be part of a distinct network involved in socially motivated learning and memory。 Such findings, he says, suggest that “this network can be called on to process and store the kind of information taught in school—potentially giving students access to a range of untapped mental powers。”

If the change is approved, 18-year-olds will be able to get married, sign contracts and take out loans without the consent of their parents.

Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able to buy the same products anywhere in the world.


  F。 The brains of teenagers, but not adults, showed greater activity in two regions associated with rewards when they were being observed by same-age peers than when alone。 In other words, rewards are more intense for teens when they are with peers, which motivates them to pursue higher-risk experiences that might bring a big payoff (such as the thrill of just making the light before it turns red)。 But Steinberg suspected this tendency could also have its advantages。 In his latest experiment, published online in August, Steinberg and his colleagues used a computerized version of a card game called the Iowa Gambling Task to investigate how the presence of peers affects the way young people gather and apply information。


Write about the following topic:

There is surprisingly scant scientific research about the hazy period between childhood and adulthood in which adolescents exist. As an editorial in the journal Nature pointed out this month: “A modern healthcare system without a focus on the unique challenges of paediatrics or geriatrics would be unthinkable, yet there is no similar effort on behalf of adolescents.”

  A) Its goals will have to be realized at a cost。

The government decided to make the age of marriage the same for both sexes because there was no justifiable reason for the difference, according to Japan's Kyodo news service.

Anything which encourages language learning benefits society culturally and economically, and early exposure to language learning contributes to this. Young children's innate abilities should be harnessed to make these benefits more achievable.


  Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

It would be the first change to the law that defines adulthood since it was set in 1876.

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.


  H。 Matthew D。 Lieberman, a social cognitive neuroscientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, and author of the 2013 book Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect, suspects that the human brain is especially adept at learning socially salient information。 He points to a classic 2004 study in which psychologists at Dartmouth College and Harvard University used functional MRI to track brain activity in 17 young men as they listened to descriptions of people while concentrating on either socially relevant cues (for example, trying to form an impression of a person based on the description) or more socially neutral information (such as noting the order of details in the description)。 The descriptions were the same in each condition, but people could better remember these statements when given a social motivation。




  D) features L) rest


291 words

Adolescent health also deserves specific contemplation because the habits of youth can become the millstones of adulthood: teens who smoke cannabis or nicotine, or who abuse alcohol, often become hooked for life. Mental health issues tend to surface early in adulthood but afflicted adolescents are mostly diagnosed on the basis of adult criteria and treated with drugs intended for older patients. When it comes to understanding adolescents, it is adults who need to grow up.

  37。 It can be concluded from experiment that the presence of peers increases risk-taking by adolescents and youth。


Write at least 250 words.

The term adolescence stems from the Latin adolescere, meaning “to grow up” but, in many other contexts, it eludes easy definition. The World Health Organization puts adolescence between the ages of 10 and 19, with other categories jostling within that complex territory. The UN defines a youth as aged 15-24, a genre overlapping with “child” (under 18) and the generic “young people” (10-24).

  Located on the Mediterranean just two hours south of Barcelona, the Ebro Delta produces 120 million kilograms of rice a year, making it one of the continent’s most important rice-growing areas。 As the sea creeps into these freshwater marshes, however, rising salinity (盐分) is hampering rice production。 At the same time, this sea-water also kills off the greedy giant apple snail, an introduced pest that feeds on young rice plants。 The most promising strategy has become to harness one foe against the other。

But this amendment will raise the age that women can get married so that all 18-year-olds will be able to do so without parental consent.

Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

必威 1

  Section C

The bill includes clauses that are designed to protect against this problem. For example, young people will be able to cancel a contract if they believe salespeople have manipulated or pressured them into signing it.

267 words


  42。 Activating the XXX network involved in socially motivated learning and memory may XXX tap XXX mental powers。


Write about the following topic:


  46。 Why does the author mention the Spanish Civil War at the beginning of the passage?

必威 2截图来自BBC网站

In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for year between finishing high school and starting university studies.

Biology provides an obvious pointer. Adolescence is thought to begin with the onset of puberty (sexual development), but patterns of puberty vary around the world — and within countries — over time. One study shows that in the mid-19th century, girls in developed countries had their first period at about 15 or 16 years old. By 2000, this had dropped to below 13, a trend that has been attributed to better nutrition and healthcare. Puberty also occurs earlier in boys. Childhood obesity is thought to be an accelerating factor.

  43。 The presence of peer intensifies the feeling of rewards in teens’ brains。


Some experts believe that it is better for children to begin learning a foreign language at primary school rather than secondary school.

It should not surprise us, then, that there is great variation the world over — and even within countries — in the ages at which the young are entrusted with making adult decisions. Laurence Steinberg, a psychology professor, writes: “A society that tries 12-year-olds who commit serious crimes as adults because they’re mature enough to ‘know better’ but prohibits 20-year-olds from buying alcohol because they are too immature to handle it, is deeply confused about how to treat people in this age range.”

  Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Little Lamb,” the eternal nursery rhyme (儿歌) about girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb? This is still disputed, but it’s clear that the woman 26 for writing it was one of America’s most fascinating 27 。 In honor of the poem publication on May 24,1830, here’s more about the 28 author’s life。


Let us not forget either that traditional products, whether these be medicines, cosmetics, toys, clothes, utensils or food, provide employment for local people. The spread of multinational products can often bring in its wake a loss of jobs. as people turn to buying the new brand, perhaps thinking it more glamorous than the one they are used to. This eventually puts old-school craftspeople out of work.

  C) characters K) reputed

But teenagers will still be banned from smoking, drinking alcohol and gambling until they are 20. If parliament votes in favour of the bill it will take effect in 2022.

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

  Hale wasn’t just a writer, she was also a 29 social advocate, and she was particularly 30 with an ideal New England, which she associated with abundant Thanksgiving meals that she claimed had “a deep moral influence,” she began a nationwide 31 to have a national holiday declared that would bring families together while celebrating the 32 festivals。 In 1863, after 17 years of advocacy including letters to five presidents, Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War, issued a __33__ setting aside the last Thursday in November for the holiday。

This has led to fears that some businesses may use sales tactics that target and exploit vulnerable young people.

310 words

  D) It tries to kill the snails with the help of climate change。

Children in Japan will be considered adults when they are 18 as opposed to 20, under a new proposal that is supported by the government.

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

  The Ebro Delta, in Spain, famous as a battleground during the Spanish Civil War, is now the setting for a different contest, one that is pitting rice farmers against two enemies: the rice-eating giant apple snail, and rising sea levels。 What happens here will have a bearing on the future of European rice production and the overall health of southern European wetlands。

The Education and Justice Ministries have also said they will educate teenagers about the responsibilities that would come with the change.

Traditionally, children have begun studying foreign languages at secondary school, but introducing them earlier is recommended by some educationalists. This policy has been adopted by some educational authorities or individual schools, with both positive and negative outcomes.

  44。 When we absorb information for the purpose of imparting it to ethers, we do so with greater secretary and depth。


剑5 Test 2

  B) It aims to increase the yield of Spanish rice。

It is quite common these days for young people in many countries to have a break from studying after graduating from high school. The trend is not restricted to rich students who have the money to travel, but is also evident among poorer students who choose to work and become economically independent for a period of time.

  38。 Students should be told that risk XXX classroom can be something positive。

In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for year between finishing high school and starting university studies.

  Section B

Write at least 250 words.

  H) obsessed

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

  A) It had great impact on the life of Spanish rice farmers。

Write about the following topic:

  48。 What do we learn about “Project Neurice”?

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

  L。 And although anxious parents may not welcome the notion, educators could turn adolescent recklessness to academic ends。 “Risk taking in an educational context is a vital skill that enables progress and creativity,” wrote Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a cognitive neuroscientist at University College London, in a review published last year。 Yet, she noted, many young people are especially risk averse at school—afraid that one low test score or mediocre grade could cost them a spot at a selective university。 We should assure such students that risk, and even peer pressure, can be a good thing—as long as it happens in the classroom and not the car。

Some parents buy their children a large number of toys to play with.

  45。 Some experts are suggesting that we turn peer influence to good use in education。

Firstly, a child will learn to interact with a lot of different people and some children learn to communicate very early because of this. They are generally more confident and independent than children who stay at home with their parents and who are not used to strangers or new situations. Such children find their first day at school at the age of six very frightening and this may have a negative effect on how they learn.


Some parents buy their children a large number of toys to play with.

  C) Killing two bird with one stone。 D) Using one evil to combat the other。

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

  As an EU-funded effort, the search for salt-tolerant varieties of rice is taking place in all three countries。 Each team is crossbreeding a local European short-grain rice with a long-grain Asian variety that carries the salt-resistant gene。 The scientists are breeding successive generations to arrive at varieties that incorporate salt tolerance but retain about 97 percent of the European rice genome (基因组)。

It is true that many parents purchase a multitude of playthings for their offspring. Whether or not this is a good thing for the child, is a moot point. On the face of it the advantages seem most apparent, but could there be a downside to this phenomenon of devoted parenting as well?

  40。 According to Steinberg, the presence of peers increases the speed and effectiveness of teenagers’ leaning。

Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able to buy the same products anywhere in the world.

  E) fierce M) supposed

The greater flexibility of the primary timetable allows for more frequent, shorter sessions and for a play-centred approach, thus maintaining learners' enthusiasm and progress. Their command of the language in later life will benefit from this early exposure, while learning other languages subsequently will be easier for them. They may also gain a better understanding of other cultures.

  Section A

300 words

  A) It can survive only on southern European wetlands。

Some may argue that all people are entitled to have access to the same products, but I say that local objects suit local conditions best, and that faceless uniformity worldwide is an unwelcome and dreary prospect.

  D) Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are XXX as hard a time as in the war。


  49。 What does Neurice project manager say about the giant apple snail?

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

  A。 Parents of teenagers often view their children‘s friends with something like suspicion。 They worry that the adolescent peer group has the power to push its members into behavior that is foolish and even dangerous。 Such wariness is well founded: statistics show, for example, that a teenage driver with a same-age passenger in the car is at higher risk of a fatal crash than an adolescent driving alone or with an adult。

Write at least 250 words.

  F) inspired N) traditional

So overall, I believe that, attending school from a young age is good for most children. They still spend plenty of time at home with their parents, so they can benefit from both environments.

  E。 In a 2011 study, Steinberg and his colleagues turned to functional MRI (磁共振) to investigate how the presence of peers affects the activity in the adolescent brain。 They scanned the brains of 40 teens and adults who were playing a virtual driving game designed to test whether players would brake at a yellow light or speed on through the crossroad。

剑9 Test 1

  A) campaign I) proclamation

It is said that countries are becoming similar to each other because of the global spread of the same products, which are now available for purchase almost anywhere. I strongly believe that this modern development is largely detrimental to culture and traditions worldwide.

  K。 Yet our schools focus primarily on students as individual entities。 What would happen if educators instead took advantage of the fact that teens are powerfully compelled to think in social terms? In Social, Lieberman lays out a number of ways to do so。 History and English could be presented through the lens of the psychological drives of the people involved。 One could therefore present Napoleon in terms of his desire to impress or Churchill in terms of his lonely melancholy。 Less inherently interpersonal subjects, such as math, could acquire a social aspect through team problem solving and peer tutoring。 Research shows that when we absorb information in order to teach it to someone else, we learn it more accurately and deeply, perhaps in part because we are engaging our social cognition。

Most people would consider children who have many toys to be the fortunate ones. Interesting things to play with stimulate many positives in the young boy or girl, such as optimum brain development, hand-eye coordination and colour recognition, apart from the simple joy of playing. Modern toys are designed to be educational as well as fun, and concerned parents carefully select products which might speed their child's acquisition of numbers or the alphabet.

  G。 The results: Teens who played the Iowa Gambling Task under the eyes of fellow adolescents engaged in more exploratory behavior, learned faster from both positive and negative outcomes, and achieved better performance on the task than those who played in solitude。 “What our study suggests is that teenagers learn more quickly and more effectively when their peers are present than when they‘re on their own,” Steinberg says。 And this finding could have important implications for how we think about educating adolescents。

Write about the following topic:

  C) It multiplies at a speed beyond human imagination。

剑10 Test 3

  D) It was introduced into the rice fields on purpose。

While some people think this may be damaging to a child's development, or to a child's relationship with his or her parents, in fact there are many advantages to having school experience at a young age.

  Passage One


  Direction: There are 2 passages in this section。 Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statement。 For each of them there are four choice and our marked A),B),C) and D)。You should decide on the best choice and nark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet2 with a single line through the centre。

剑4 Test B

  C) Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are waging a battle of similar importance。

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

  A) XXX enemy first。 B) Eliminating the enemy one by one。

259 words

  B。 In a 2005 study, psychologist Laurence Steinberg of Temple University and his co-author, psychologist Margo Gardner, then at Temple, divided 306 people into three age groups: young adolescents, with a mean age of 14; older adolescents, with a mean age of 19; and adults, aged 24 and older。 Subjects played a computerized driving game in which the player must avoid crashing into a wall that materializes, without warning, on the roadway。 Steinberg and Gardner randomly assigned some participants to play alone or with two same-age peers looking on。

Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

  36。 It is thought probable that the human brain is particularly good at picking-up socially important information。

Some people believe that children should be allowed to stay at home and play until they are six or seven years old. Others believe that it is important for young children to go to school as soon as possible.

  B) It is of great significance in the records of Spanish history。


  D。 Yet in the years following the publication of this study, Steinberg began to believe that this interpretation did not capture the whole picture。 As he and other researchers examined the question of why teens were more apt to take risks in the company of other teenagers, they came to suspect that a crowd‘s influence need not always be negative。 Now some experts are proposing that we should take advantage of the teen brain’s keen sensitivity to the presence of friends and leverage it to improve education。

What are the advantages and disadvantages for the child of having a large number of toys.

  The battle is currently being waged on land, in greenhouses at the University of Barcelona。 Scientists working under the banner “Project Neurice” are seeking varieties of rice that can withstand the increasing salinity without losing the absorbency that makes European rice ideal for traditional Spanish and Italian dishes。

The reasons for this trend may involve the recognition that a young adult who passes directly from school to university is rather restricted in terms of general knowledge and experience of the world. By contrast, those who have spent some time earning a living or travelling to other places, have a broader view of life and better personal resources to draw on. They tend to be more independent, which is a very important factor in academic study and research, as well as giving them an advantage in terms of coping with the challenges of student life.

  “The project has two sides,” says Xavier Serrat, Neurice project manager and researcher at the University of Barcelona。 “The short-term fight against the snail, and a mid- to long-term fight against climate change。 But the snail has given the project greater urgency。”

What are the advantages and disadvantages for the child of having a large number of toys.

  Originally from South America, the snails were accidentally introduced into the Ebro Delta by Global Aquatic Tecnologies, a company that raised the snails for fresh-water aquariums (水族馆), but failed to prevent their escape。 For now, the giant apple snail’s foothold in Europe is limited to the Ebro Delta。 But the snail continues its march to new territory, says Serrat。 “The question is not if it will reach other rice-growing areas of Europe, but when。”

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this.

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。

A country's history, language and ethos are all inextricably bound up in its manufactured artefacts. If the relentless advance of international brands into every corner of the world continues, these bland packages might one day completely oust the traditional objects of a nation, which would be a loss of richness and diversity in the world, as well as the sad disappearance of the manifestations of a place`s character. What would a Japanese tea ceremony be without its specially crafted teapot, or a Fijian kava ritual without its bowl made from a certain type of tree bark?

  41。 Teenagers’ parents are often concerned XXX negative peer influence。

There are, however, some disadvantages. Primary school teachers are generalists. and may not have the necessary language skills themselves. If specialists have to be brought in to deliver these sessions, the flexibility referred to above is diminished. If primary language teaching is not standardised, secondary schools could be faced with a great variety of levels in different languages within their intake, resulting in a classroom experience which undoes the earlier gains. There is no advantage if enthusiastic primary pupils become demotivated as soon as they change schools. However, these issues can be addressed strategically within the policy adopted.

  47。 What may be XXX for rice farmers to employ in flghting their enemies?

Write at least 250 words.

  39。 The XXX a mate and getting married accounts for adolescents’ greater attention to social interactions。

Is it possible that owning multiple toys could be in any way detrimental to a child? This is an unusual question, but there are some hidden pitfalls. For one, wealthy parents might spoil their son or daughter by showering him/her with toys, resulting in a negative effect on the child's character. For another, a growing child's concentration span may suffer if they are constantly surrounded by too many tempting objects, so that they become unable to focus on any one game for a decent length of time before being distracted. On the social side, older children may become targets of envy from classmates, if they are perceived as having far more possessions than their peers. Finally, the majority of toys today are made of plastic which commonly contains the chemical BPA, proven to be dangerous for infants to suck on or ingest.

  C。 Older adolescents scored about 50 percent higher on an index of risky driving when their peers were in the room—and the driving of early adolescents was fully twice as reckless when other young teens were around。 In contrast, adults behaved in similar ways regardless of whether they were on their own or observed by others。 “The presence of peers makes adolescents and youth, but not adults, more likely to take risks,” Steinberg and Gardner concluded。

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks。 You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage。 Read the passage through carefully before making your choices。 Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter。 Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre。 You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once。

Write at least 250 words.


剑4 Test B

  The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According to New England Historical Society, Hale wrote only one part of the poem, but claimed authorship。 Regardless of the author, it seems that the poem was __34__by a real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was followed to school by a lamb in 1816, it caused some problems。 A bystander named John Roulstone wrote a poem about the event, then, at some point, Hale herself seems to have helped write it。 However, if a 1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted, Hale claimed for the __35__of her life that “Some other people pretended that someone else wrote the poem”。

In many places today, children start primary school at around the age of six or seven. However, because it is more likely now that both parents work, there is little opportunity for children to stay in their own home up to that age. Instead, they will probably go to a nursery school when they are much younger.

  B) It will invade other rice-growing regions of Europe。

However, there are certainly dangers in taking time off at that important age. Young adults may end up never returning to their studies or finding it difficult to readapt to an academic environment. They may think that it is better to continue in a particular job, or to do something completely different from a university course. But overall, I think this is less likely today, when academic qualifications are essential for getting a reasonable career.

  B) career J) rectified

Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

  Peer Pressure Has a Positive Side

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this.


Some people believe that children should be allowed to stay at home and play until they are six or seven years old. Others believe that it is important for young children to go to school as soon as possible.

剑10 TestB

剑10 Test B

必威 ,具体范文:

Another advantage of going to school at an early age is that children develop faster socially. They make friends and learn how to get on with other children of a similar age. This is often not possible at home because they are the only child, or because their brothers or sisters are older or younger.

剑10 Test 3

Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

Write about the following topic:

What do you think are the advantages of attending school from a young age?

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

剑5 Test 2

Some experts believe that it is better for children to begin learning a foreign language at primary school rather than secondary school.

Finally, tourism numbers may also be affected, as travellers become disillusioned with finding every place just the same as the one they visited previously. To see the same products in shops the world over is boring, and does not impel visitors to open their wallets in the same way that trinkets or souvenirs unique to the particular area do.

What do you think are the advantages of attending school from a young age?