经济学人,日本人口锐减老龄化严重

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The authorities are focusing on keeping the centre alive

WILD BOARS ARE TAKING OVER JAPAN AS POPULATION AGES, DISAPPEARS
日本人口锐减老龄化严重 引发野猪成群霸占城镇

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Japan’s government is considering a new way to get people to consider life outside Tokyo: Pay them to leave.

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As people slowly leave some Japanese towns and cities, wild boars are coming in to replace them.
据美国《新闻周刊》网站3月9日的消息:在人们逐渐搬离日本一些村镇和城市后,大批野猪便大肆涌入。

United States 美国

日本政府正考虑用一种新方法让民众离开东京去其他地方生活——那就是,花钱请他们走。

THE snow accumulating on the Japan Alps is a reminder of the unforgiving winters in the city of Toyama. Kazuko Onagawa, at 87 years old, is unfazed. Lithe and trim, she power-walks around a swimming pool in the Kadokawa Preventative Care Centre. After she dries off she may drop into the gym, rehabilitation room or massage parlour. A doctor is permanently on site in case she or her friends overdo it. “I’m fit for my age,” she smiles.“Winters don’t worry me.”

As the country’s aging population gradually dies, wild boars are filling the void, lured by rice paddies without human supervision and the hospitable landscape—where they find plenty of shelter and not enough people to deter them from coming. What used to be a problem just in southern Japan, with boar sightings and occasional attacks on humans, has blossomed into an issue for the entire country, according to a report in The Washington Post.
随着日本老龄化人口的逐渐消亡和在无人监管稻田以及舒适环境的吸引下,野猪正在城镇四处流窜。它们在这里可以找到多处藏身之所,也没有足够的人手能阻止它们的到来。据《华盛顿邮报》的一则报道,在过去,只有日本南方才会出现野猪和野猪偶尔袭击人类的问题。现如今,这已演变为一个日本全国性问题。

In the United States, the fertility rate has reached a record low of 1.76. The fertility rate in the United States fell to an all-time low last year. Americans' average life expectancy, meanwhile, sits at a relatively high 78.7 years.

According to a report by national broadcaster NHK on Nov. 22, the government is mulling giving as much as 3 million yen to people who decide to relocate from the 23 wards of Tokyo and find jobs elsewhere, starting in the next fiscal year.

About 30% of Toyama’s 418,000 residents are 65 or older, an even higher proportion than in Japan as a whole, where itis 27% (see chart). By 2025, the proportion in Toyama is projected to be 32%.In addition to greying, the population is also declining. The city had 421,000 people in 2005; by 2025, it will have 390,000.

Japan’s population has grown older in recent years: Estimates from the United Nations Population Division indicate that about 35 percent of the country was least 65 years old in 2017. And the agency projects that the problem will only get worse, and seniors will make up roughly half the country by 2050.
近年来,日本已进入人口老龄化阶段。据联合国人口司的估算显示,2017年,日本约35%的人口年龄在65岁以上。该机构预计,日本人口老龄化问题只将会进一步恶化,到2050年老年人口将占到日本总人口的一半左右。

去年,美国的生育率已经降到1.76,创下历史新低。美国人均寿命相对较高,为78.7岁。

根据日本国家广播机构日本放送协会11月22日的报道,日本政府正考虑从下一个财年起,给那些决定搬离东京23个区去其他地方找工作的人多达300万日元(18.4万元人民币)的补助。

unfazed: not confused, worried, or shocked by something that has happened

This goes against the worldwide pattern, in which people younger than 65 make up the large majority of the population, both now and in projected numbers for 2050.
在全球范围内,无论是现在还是预计的2050年的人口数量,65岁以下的人群会占据一个国家人口的绝大多数,而日本显然背道而驰。

Many experts say the 2008 economic recession and high college tuition are contributing to this trend.

Tokyo and the greater metropolitan area surrounding the capital, with a total population of some 38 million, have long bucked the trend in Japan when it comes to demographics, even as Japan’s overall population shrinks. That’s often been at the cost of other cities.

parlour: a store or businenss that sells a specified kind of food or service

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许多专家表示,2008年的经济衰退和高额的大学学费是低生育率背后的原因。

东京和周边的大都会区总人口多达3800万,长久以来在人口统计数据中一直逆势而上,即使日本总人口缩水,东京人口却一直在增加。但这通常是以其他城市为代价的。

日本人口老龄化是一个严重的问题,养老金支出加大,劳动人口又不足!

Japan has a wild boar problem, as depopulation from natural disasters and aging leaves room for the wild animals. Above, three boars were killed in an evacuated residential area near the Fukushima nuclear plant.
自然灾害造成的人口减少和日本人口的老龄化为野生动物提供下了生存空间。日本也便有了野猪肆虐城镇的问题。

According to a 2018 survey in?The New York Times, however, adults who want kids say they sometimes end up having few, or zero, kids due to the high cost of childcare. The average cost of full-time childcare exceeds $10,000 a year in several states, according to Child Care Aware of America.

Tokyo and the prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Saitama posted significant population growth in 2017. According to NHK, the number of people moving to Tokyo has exceeded the number moving out for 22 years and counting. Nearly one out of every three people in Japan lives in the Tokyo area.

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Wild boars, also known as Eurasian wild pigs, have moved in to supplant the shrinking population. In the Iwate Prefecture, authorities caught 94 boars last year, The Washington Post reported. That’s up from just two caught in 2011.
野猪--又称欧亚野猪--已涌进城镇来取代日益减少的人口。据《华盛顿邮报》报道,在日本岩手县,当局在2017年共抓捕了94头野猪,而2011年仅有2头野猪被抓,这一数据已在大幅提升。

《纽约时报》2018年的一项调查显示,想要孩子的成年人表示因为育儿费用太高,所以没要孩子或者只生育了一两个小孩。根据美国育儿意识机构的数据,在美国的几个州,一年的全日托儿费都超过了1万美元(6.85万元人民币)。

2017年东京和千叶县、神奈川县、琦玉县都报告了大幅度的人口增长。根据日本放送协会的数据,搬到东京的人数已经连续22年超过搬离东京的人数,而且超出数量还在不断增加。日本近三分之一的人都生活在东京地区。

As the population ages and shrinks, the services residents need have changed. The Kadokawa Centre, for example, is built on the site of a primary school that closed in 2004. But overhauling public services is costly, and the declining number of people of working age means there is ever less tax revenue to help pay for the shift. To remain solvent, the city has decided to shrink not just in population, but in size, concentrating residents and services in the centre.

On top of aging, Japan’s northern stretches have also faced depopulation linked to the Fukushima nuclear plant meltdown and the tsunami that destroyed coastal areas—both events related to a devastating earthquake in 2011, as The Washington Post points out.
《华盛顿邮报》报道称,除了人口老龄化的因素之外,日本北部地区人口的减少也同福岛核电站的堆芯熔毁和沿海地区遭海啸的摧毁息息相关,而这两起事件也同2011年的一场毁灭性地震存有连带关系。

The US birth rate has remained below "replacement level" since the 1970s, which means not enough children are being born to keep the population at a steady level.

The government added that as more people leave other major cities such as Sendai and Sapporo in the north of Japan for Tokyo, it will encourage people to relocate to those places, for example through tax benefits.

Most of Japan is in a similar quandary.About 400 schools shut every year; some are being converted into retirement homes. In 2016 there were 300,000 more deaths than births. If Japan continues on its present course, it will have shed nearly a third of its population (and four out of every ten workers) by the time Mrs Onagawa’s grandchildren retire in 2065.

All of this, plus warmer temperatures and less snow, make the conditions right for wild boars.
所有这些因素,再加上日渐暖和的天气和更少的雪,野猪的生存条件变得很好起来。

自从上世纪70年代以来,美国的生育率就一直在更替水平之下,这意味着出生的孩子数量无法让人口总量保持稳定。

日本政府还表示,随着更多人离开仙台市、札幌市等北部城市前往东京,政府将通过税收优惠等措施鼓励人们搬到这些地方居住。

solvent: able to pay debts

“Because of depopulation, there are more and more abandoned fields and rice paddies,” a Tokyo University wildlife management professor, Koichi Kaji, told the publication. “They’re perfect places for wild boars to hide and feed.”
东京大学野生动物管理学教授Koichi Kaji向该报表示:“由于人口减少,越来越多的土地和稻田被遗弃,这便成了野猪藏身和觅食的绝佳场所。

Last year, the US Census Bureau wrote in a paper that women who have kids between the ages of 25 and 35 have more difficulty in getting fair pay than women who give birth outside of that range. American women are now having children older than ever.

One prefecture that saw a population increase last year is the industrial hub of Aichi in central Japan, which experienced an influx of foreign migrant labor. Every prefecture in Japan except for Nagasaki posted a rise in the number of foreigners last year. Only the Okinawa prefecture experienced a population increase due to the number of births exceeding the number of deaths.

quandary: a situation in which you are confused about what to do

The authorities want farmers to get licenses for guns and traps to help reduce the animal population, but many are too old to help in that defense.
为降低野猪的数量,当局呼吁农民申请枪支和捕捉器的许可证,但许多人年纪太大,根本无法参与防御行动。

去年,美国人口普查局在一篇报告中写道,在25岁和35岁之间生育孩子的女性相比在其他年龄段生育的女性更难得到公平的薪酬。现在美国女性的生育年龄高于以往。

由于外国移民劳动力的涌入,日本中部的工业中心爱知县去年人口出现了增长。除了长崎市以外,日本每个县的外国移民数量都有所增加。只有冲绳县的人口增长是因为新生儿数量超过了死亡人数。

把小学关了建养老院,城市人口在下降的同时,把城市规模也压缩一下,集中在城市中心那一块,比较省资源。日本其他城市也差不多这个样子

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Japan’s government has for decades tried to lure people away from the capital and help rebuild depopulated and dilapidated areas, in a program broadly known as “revitalization of regions”. Some local governments have used tax cuts to encourage companies to leave the Tokyo area, while others will subsidize relocation costs.

Super Monster Wolf
超级怪兽狼

Spain 西班牙

几十年来,日本政府一直试着吸引人们离开东京,去帮助重建人口凋零的衰落地区,这个项目也被称为“地区复兴”。一些地方政府已经通过减税来鼓励企业离开东京地区,而其他地方政府则选择发放安置补助费。

Japan will not accept mass immigration, says Masashi Mori, the mayor of Toyama. Efforts to raise the birth rate have had little success, although there are a few exceptions. The only alternative is to learn to live with far fewer people. That implies great upheaval, which Toyama hopes to minimise.

Some people are getting creative, including designing a robotic but realistic-looking wolf known as the Super Monster Wolf that is meant to scare off the boars.
有人很有创意,设计出一款名叫“超级怪兽狼”的仿真狼机器人,用来吓跑野猪。(译:陈娟)

Spain has more deaths than births each year, and some towns are already nearly abandoned.

One island in the Seto Inland Sea crowdfunded money to repurpose an old house into accommodation for new arrivals, and managed to attract a few newcomers, according to the?Japan Times. The central government has even considered relocating some of Tokyo’s rapidly growing elderly population outside of the capital.

The city’s first focus has been public transport. Old people who don’t get out and about tend to be less healthy and need more help. But buses can be daunting even for the relatively spry. At any rate, the number of passengers on the city’s buses fell from 40,000 a day in1995 to 17,000 in 2012. The cost of nursing care, meanwhile, has risen by 21% since

西班牙每年的死亡人数都超过出生人数,一些城镇甚至因人口凋零而被荒废。

据《日本时报》报道,濑户内海的一个岛用众筹的钱将旧房改造成新居民的安置房,也确实吸引来了一些人。日本中央政府甚至考虑将快速增加的老年人口从东京迁出一部分。

  1. The solution, the city government decided, was to build a tram system that is easy for old people to use, and to encourage them to live close to it. It used mainly existing train lines and second-hand rolling stock to keep costs down. There are no barriers in the stations and no steps up onto the trams, to make them easy for frailer passengers to use. Those aged 65 and over can buy a discounted ticket to go anywhere on the network for ¥100 ($0.90). The number of passengers using the city’s trains more than doubled when the first refurbished line was opened in 2006; the number of passengers in their 70s rose by more than three times.

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Spanish women tend to give birth later in life than most other European women, and Spaniards also live longer than anyone else in the European Union. On average, women in Spain have 1.5 children.

There is, in fact, a growing trend of young Tokyo-dwellers who want to leave behind urban life in the capital to move to smaller, cheaper, and quieter parts of Japan. And some areas are enjoying success in attracting people and businesses to leave Tokyo, such as Fukuoka, a mid-sized city in Kyushu which has seen a large influx of tech workers and start-ups, drawn to the city’s lower costs and proximity to talent and markets in other parts of Asia.

upheaval: a major change or period of change that causes a lot of conflict, confusion, anger, etc.

西班牙女性的生育年龄比多数欧洲女性都更大,而西班牙人的平均寿命又高于其他欧盟公民。在西班牙,女性平均生育1.5个小孩。

事实上,越来越多的东京年轻居民想要远离东京的都市生活,搬到更小、物价更低也更安静的日本城镇。日本一些地区已经成功吸引了一部分人和企业离开东京,比如九州的福冈市,这个中型城市涌入了大量技术人员和初创企业,吸引他们的是较低的物价,而且对亚洲其他地区的人才和市场可以近水楼台先得月。

spry: full of life and energy. used especially to describe an older person

In Spain's northeastern Aragon region, one village already shows what a demographic time bomb can look like. The only remaining residents of La Estrella are two people in their 80s.

The small ski town of Niseko in Hokkaido is also enjoying a small increase in population, thanks to an explosion of interest overseas in Japan’s ski slopes. But with Japan’s vast government bureaucracy, its top schools, as well as companies all concentrated in Tokyo, escaping the capital looks set to remain a pipe dream for most.

在西班牙东北部的亚拉贡地区,人口定时炸弹的效应已经在一个名为拉埃斯特雷的村庄显现。这个村子最后剩下的两个居民都是八十多岁。

由于外国游客对去日本滑雪兴趣猛增,北海道的滑雪小镇新雪谷町的人口也有小幅增长。但是考虑到日本庞大的政府机构、顶尖学校和公司全都集中在东京,离开东京对大多数人来说恐怕只能是个白日梦。

The city government subsidises both the construction and the purchase of new housing within 500m of one of the new tram stops, and rents out several properties itself. It also pays two-thirds of the cost of running the Kadokawa Centre, and offers further grants for those opening facilities catering to old people within the city centre. The elderly are given free admission to museums and the zoo, provided they bring a grandchild with them. The city even subsidises the wages of old people hired by local firms.

Last year, the Spanish government hired a special commissioner to determine how to reverse falling birth rates.

The result of all this has been that the population of the city centre is rising, even as that of the rest of the city falls. The centre is now home to 37% of residents, up from 28% in 2005. By 2025 the city government hopes the proportion will be 42%. The boom in the centre has brought new shops and other businesses, helping to stabilise tax revenues. The cost of providing municipal services has fallen, says the mayor, who is in his fourth term. As he puts it: “We want a small city for old people to live comfortably and happily.”

去年,西班牙政府任命了一位特别专员来想办法逆转生育率下降的局面。

市政府补助那些在铁路站500米内买房的人,给那些开老人服务中心的更多的资金,补助聘用老人的企业等等... 把大部分老人集中到市中心来,还可以引来各种店铺和企业,税收自然就上来了

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所有的这些举措都希望建立一个小城市,让老人住得开心和舒服

Italy 意大利

总结:老有所养,老有所依,这个可以借鉴到中国,我国的老龄化也开始会日益严重

A rise in immigration to Italy has not helped the country steer clear of becoming a demographic time bomb.


意大利移民的增加并没有让这个国家免于人口危机。

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A record-low 464,000 children were born in Italy last year, and the country's mean age has surpassed 45 for the first time ever.

Results

去年,464000名婴儿在意大利出生,达到历史新低,而意大利人的平均年龄首次超过了45岁。

Lexile®Measure: 1000L - 1100L

Many Italians want to have two or more children,?The Local?reported, but cite difficulties in finding employment as a factor in their decisions not to.

Mean Sentence Length: 15.17

据《本地人》报道,许多意大利人想要两个以上的小孩,但是因为工作难找而决定放弃。

Mean Log Word Frequency: 3.45

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Word Count: 713

Bulgaria 保加利亚

这篇文章的蓝思值是在1000-1100L, 适合英语专业大一的水平学习,应该是经济学人里最简单的

The population of Bulgaria, the European Union's poorest member, may soon become as low as it was in the aftermath of World War II, Bloomberg reported.

使用kindle断断续续地读《经济学人》三年,发现从一开始磕磕碰碰到现在比较顺畅地读完,进步很大,推荐购买!点击这里可以去亚马逊官网购买~

据彭博社报道,作为欧盟最穷的成员国,保加利亚的人口很快将变得和二战结束时一样少。

Bulgaria's population is shrinking faster than any other country in the world; it is expected to hit only 5.4 million in 2050, down from 7 million last year, according to Quartz.

保加利亚的人口下降速度比世界其他国家都快。据Quartz网站报道,去年保加利亚人口为700万,预计在2050年保加利亚人口将降至540万。

In addition, the country has seen an increase in emigration as citizens seek job opportunities elsewhere. Bulgaria's fertility rate is only 1.46 children per woman.

此外,移民国外寻找工作机会的保加利亚人也在增加。在保加利亚,平均每位女性仅生育1.46个孩子。

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Latvia 拉脱维亚

Since Latvia joined the European Union in 2004, nearly 20 percent of the country's population has left to seek employment in other parts of the bloc, such as Germany and the United Kingdom.

自从拉脱维亚于2004年加入欧盟,已有近20%的人口离开本国去德国和英国等其他欧洲国家寻找就业机会。

Latvia's population, reported to be nearly 2 million last year, is estimated to fall to 1.52 million by 2050, according to Quartz.

据Quartz网站报道,去年拉脱维亚的人口将近200万,预计在2050年会降至152万。

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South Korea 韩国

The South Korean government has offered cash incentives to people who have more than one child, as the fertility rate currently sits at 1.26 children per woman – too low to maintain a stable population.

因为韩国生育率低至1.26,已经无法维持韩国人口的稳定,韩国政府向那些生育一个以上孩子的人提供现金奖励。

Amid the declining fertility rates, some South Koreans have said they are not having children due to a lack of financial stability, according to Quartz.

韩国生育率一直在下降,据Quartz网站报道,一些韩国人声称自己不要小孩是因为经济不稳定。

Demographers say South Korea's low fertility rate is linked to women having children at an increasingly later age. In 2017, the average age of a Korean woman having a first child surpassed 31. It was the oldest average in the world.

人口学家表示,韩国的低生育率和女性生育年龄越来越大有关。2017年,韩国女性生育头胎的平均年龄超过了31岁,为全世界最高。

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Japan 日本

Unlike other countries with similarly low fertility rates, Japan has not seen a significant influx of immigrants. A low number of workers in the country decreases the amount of tax money going toward retirement and healthcare services for older residents, who are growing in numbers.

和其他生育率低的国家不同,日本没有大量的移民涌入。劳动人口太少导致用于老年人口的养老和医疗的税金下降,而与此同时老年人口却不断增加。

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United Kingdom 英国

The United Kingdom's birth rate has fallen to its lowest level in a dozen years,?The Times?reported. At the same time, the number of British residents age 65 or older is rising due to better healthcare and higher living standards.

据《泰晤士报》报道,英国出生率已经降到了十几年来的最低点。与此同时,65岁以上的英国居民的数量却因为医疗条件改善、生活标准提高而不断增加。

The UK's referendum to leave the European Union has led to a decrease in the number of immigrants, who are generally younger, leading to an increasingly older population.

英国脱欧导致移民数量下降,而移民人口普遍都比较年轻,使人口老龄化进一步加剧。

According to?The Guardian, the number of elderly people without social care has peaked, with one in seven lacking adequate support. About 1.4 million residents who are older than 65 are not receiving help with getting up or getting washed.

据《卫报》报道,得不到照看的老年人数量已达到一个高峰,其中七分之一缺人照料。约有140万65岁以上的老年人生活起居无人照料。

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Singapore 新加坡

Singapore's fertility rate, 0.83, is the lowest in the world.

新加坡的生育率为0.83,是全世界最低的。

A 2017 report by the Singapore-based United Overseas Bank suggests that the country is on a similar path as Japan. In 2017, for the first time in modern Singapore's history, the percentage of people who were 65 years old or older was equal to the share of residents younger than 15.

新加坡大华银行2017年的一份报告指出,新加坡可能会陷入和日本一样的人口危机。2017年65岁以上的新加坡人和15岁以下的新加坡人一样多,这在新加坡现代史上是头一回。

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China 中国

China's fertility rate keeps dropping despite the government's 2016 decision to allow families to have two children instead of one, so local authorities are taking steps to encourage more childbirth.

尽管政府在2016年放开了全面二胎,但是中国的生育率还是持续下降,因此地方政府正采取措施鼓励生育。

About 25 percent of China's population is expected to be 60 years or older by 2030, a significant increase compared to the roughly 13 percent of residents who were part of that age bracket in 2010.

约25%的中国人口在2030年前将超过60岁,而在2010年只有约13%的中国人口超过60岁。

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