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Move over, humans, it seems animals need makeovers too。 It’s all the rage in South Korea right now as pet owners are actually paying for cosmetic surgery for their furry companions!

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发达的整形业让韩国一直有“整形之都” 的称呼。

South Korean women are destroying cosmetics and cutting their hair short to fight back against unrealistic beauty ideals in what is being dubbed the "escape corset" movement.


Have you heard of the “makeup tax”? It refers to the time and money women spend on their appearances in the hopes of doing well at work. Many career women fear that if they don’t live up to society’s expectations, they will lose out on promotions and pay raises.



Some of the popular procedures include tail shortening and ear trimming for dogs, to make them ‘cute’ with pointy ears。 Fat reduction is another popular surgery, along with stretch marks removal, wrinkle smoothing, double eyelid removal and even botox injections。 These procedures start from $60 and ostensibly run into the thousands。


With the highest rate of cosmetic surgeries in the world and nearly 1 million procedures a year, South Korea is often called the world’s plastic surgery capital.

In posts across Instagram, Twitter, and other social media platforms, women have been denouncing the use of cosmetics and a culture that pressures as many as one in three women to undergo some form of plastic surgery.


The “makeup tax” affects a lot of women. US presidential candidate and former secretary of state Hillary Clinton is no exception. Last month, in an online Q&A session on Facebook, Clinton was asked about her morning grooming routine by Libby Brittain, a female Facebook staffer. Brittain complained that she has to spend more than 30 minutes getting ready for work while her boyfriend “zip[s] out the door”.



It’s not entirely surprising, given that South Korea is the plastic surgery capital of the world。 This is the place where tourists become unrecognisable to the extent that they need special doctor certificates to return to their native lands after having work done on their faces。 So it was only a matter of time before people started thinking of botoxing their pets as well。

“化妆税”影响了大批女性,连美国总统候选人、前国务卿希拉里·克林顿也不例外。上个月,在脸书的一档在线问答互动活动上,脸书公司的女性雇员莉比·布里顿问 希拉里是如何应对日常打扮的。布化妆令女人更成功?

Some estimates have suggested that around one in three South Korean women between 19 and 29 have had plastic surgery. Others have put that number at 50% or higher.

One post on Instagram by user 6_feminist_9 confessed that she had low self-esteem and felt she had to use makeup as a mask just to leave the house.


“I wonder about how the ‘hair and makeup tax’ affects other women–especially ones I admire in high-pressure, public-facing jobs,” wrote Brittain, who added that as a “young professional woman” she’d like to know how Clinton handles it while “staying focused on the ‘real’ work ahead”.

据估计, 19至29岁韩国女性中,大约三分之一进行过整形手术。还有人估计这个比例可能达到50%,甚至更高。


The dog in the before and after photos above apparently had plastic surgery done because his inner eyelids were pointing towards the eyes。 After the procedure, his eyes look bigger, a feature that many pet owners love。


而现在,选择做整形手术改善形象的人群越来越多元化 了。

"I liked pretty things. I wanted to be pretty. I hated my ugly face," she posted.


Clinton acknowledged that the “makeup tax” is a problem. “Amen, sister,” she wrote in her answer. “It’s a daily challenge. I do the best I can –and as you may have noticed, some days are better than others!”

South China Morning Post 就报道了韩国整形业的一个新趋势:


According to one anonymous veterinarian, “Plastic surgery for pets in the past were for medical reasons but the result also brought better looking dogs, so there is a growing customer base getting a plastic surgery for cosmetic reasons on their dogs。” Apparently, a few doctors believe that these surgeries are “medically safe” and ethical。 They say it’s the “owner’s right” to make their pets look beautiful。


▲韩国老年人尝试整形手术 (Via South China Morning Post)

"Self-esteem came and went. I was always putting on makeup. I did not go to school on days when I did not have good makeup.


Olga Khazan, writing in The Atlantic, thinks Clinton shouldn’t have treated the question so lightheartedly. The “makeup tax” is very real, Khazan says. Women invest time and money into makeup because it impacts their relationships and their careers. Men also use grooming products, but they never have to worry about the price of makeup.



In fact, a few vets are actually pitching cosmetic surgery to pet owners。 According to an article in Chosun Daily, a woman visited a vet to get vaccinations for her five-month-old puppy。 The doctor, however, asked if she wanted to close the gap in the canine’s mouth which he considered unappealing from a cosmetic perspective。





According to a Washington Post report, the cosmetics industry makes $60 billion (384 billion yuan) each year in the US. The personal finance website Mint.com claims that the average US woman will spend $15,000 on makeup in her lifetime. Applying makeup also costs time. If it takes you an average of 10 minutes to apply makeup every morning before going to work, that’s an hour per week, or two full days per year.


"But now you do not have to. It does not have to be pretty. In the meantime, I took off the mask that plagued me and ruined my life."

Animal lovers in South Korea are horrified by the trend, which many consider animal abuse。 Lots of them feel people have no right to inflict their distorted sense of aesthetics on helpless animals。 Korean veterinarian magazine Daily Vet conducted a survey in which 63 percent of pet owners wanted plastic surgery for dogs to be banned。 Many of them have taken to social media to express their disgust。

根 据《华盛顿邮报》的报道,美国的化妆品行业每年能挣600亿美元(3840亿人民币)。个人理财网Mint.com说平均每个美国女性一生中要花1万5千 美元用于购买化妆品。同时,化妆也是个耗费时间的活儿。如果每天早上上班之前你平均要花10分钟来化妆,那么每周有一小时用于化妆,每年有整整两天用在了 化妆上。



韩国动物爱好者对这股潮流感到恐惧,多数人认为这是一种动物虐待。许多人认为人类无权将这种扭曲的审美观加诸于无助的动物身上。韩国兽医杂志Daily Vet做过一项调查,63%的宠物主人希望叫停狗狗整容术。许多人还在社交媒体上表达对该行为的反感。

Critics might say, “Just don’t wear makeup!” But few people can afford to ignore society’s expectations. Years of research have shown that attractive people earn more, yet men aren’t expected to wear makeup in order to look good.


Another user said: "Today is one month since I decided to cut my hair and take a bath!"

“Did the dogs say they want plastic surgery,” one person asked。


据报道,65岁以上的女性和男性已成为该诊所和同类诊所的常客了 。而且这些顾客有类似的需求:



According to The New York Times, a 2014 study published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology found that both male and female participants thought “regular” women looked best when they applied a moderate amount of makeup. Another 2012 study found that subtle makeup made women seem not only attractive, but more likable and competent. A 2006 study published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology found that participants were more likely to award “prestigious jobs” to women who used makeup than to the same women when their faces were unadorned.

Kwak In-soo, NAMU’s head surgeon, says the age range of patients coming to his clinic has increased over the years. “About 15 per cent of my personal patients are 65 and over, while 30 per cent are over 50, I would say.”

"Cosmetics, lenses, and clothes that are not easy to wear are now used as memorials."

“I don’t care about people who want and get plastic surgery, but this is too much,” another wrote。 “Are you saying because they look up to the owners, the owners can do anything to them?”

据 《纽约时报》消息,《实验心理学季刊》曾在2014年刊登过一项研究,研究发现男性和女性参与者都认为淡妆状态下的女性颜值最高。2012年的另一项研究 则表明淡妆不仅让女性更好看,还让她们看起来更讨人喜欢和能干。2006年《应用社会心理学杂志》发布的一篇研究发现被试更愿意把优越的职位提供给化过妆 的女性而非那些未施粉黛的。

NAMU的首席整形医生Kwak In-soo说,这些年,来他诊所的顾客年龄范围有所扩大。 “我个人接待的患者中约有15%是65岁以上,30%是50岁以上。”



“I wish society didn’t reward this,” Daniel Hamermesh, an economics professor at the University of Texas at Austin and author of Beauty Pays, told The New York Times. “I think we’d be a fairer world if beauty were not rewarded, but it is.”

Facelifts are the most common procedures for senior patients, as facial skin loses its vitality with age and begins to sag.

Beauty regimes commonly require women to spend hours applying makeup each day – often involving waking up two hours before work to do so or carrying out lengthy skincare routines that involve 10 steps or more at the end of each day.

“What is the difference between this and forcing your own children to get plastic surgery,” another pointed out。






(Via South China Morning Post)

he women abandoning demanding cosmetic regimens call themselves "beauty resisters" and are part of a broader push back against South Korea's highly patriarchal society which places a huge emphasis on a woman's appearance as being key to success in life.



▲Kwak In-soo接受顾客咨询




不过,鉴于身体状况,老年人做整形手术还是面临一定的风险 的。韩国整形外科医生协会副会长Kwon Sung-il 也在江南区开了一家整形医院。 据他介绍,他接待的顾客中,有70%以上都是老年人 ,但是,在接受咨询的时候,他仍然会采取审慎的态度。

tories about young women transforming their lives after having plastic surgery and makeovers are abound in soaps and movies, and popular on reality TV.



“Patients who take medication for high blood pressure or other health concerns need to stop taking medication for at least a week if they want to go ahead with procedures at our clinic,” explains Kwon. “But if their health does not allow such a break from medication, we cannot carry out the procedure.”




“如果他们想在我们的诊所做整形手术,服用高血压或其他药物的患者至少需要停药一周。” Kwon解释说。“但如果他们的健康状况不允许中断药物,我们就无法进行手术。”

South Korea has a massive beauty industry and in 2017 it was estimated to be worth just over ?10bn, according to retail researchers Mintel.



(Via South China Morning Post)




而且,相比较年轻人,老年人的术后恢复 也会面临一些问题。

Seoul is the global plastic surgery capital and the wealthy neighborhood of Gangnam reportedly has 500 aesthetic centers.


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报道分享了一个案例,65岁的Kim Pil-sung一直想做整形手术,犹豫多年后,终于决定去提拉眼周和嘴周的皮肤 。

她的女儿Lee还是上文提到的整形医院NAMU的咨询处负责人。一开始,她是反对她妈妈去动刀子的,因为她患有高血压和糖尿病。考虑到她的健康状况,手术有可能会引发一些并发症 。

“My mother would spend a lot of time at her church with other women her age, and she told me that most of them had some type of procedure done to their face,” says Lee. “I even agree; I think about eight out of 10 women over the age of 50 have gone under the knife at one point, nowadays.”

“我妈妈和她的同龄人去教堂,她告诉我,他们中大多数人都做过某种整形手术,”Lee说。 “我认同她的说法,我觉得现在50岁以上的女性中,10个里面有8个都动过刀子。

(Via South China Morning Post)


“This is a picture of my mother’s face a week after her facial procedure, but you can clearly see that the big blue and black bruises still take up a lot of space,” explains NAMU’s Lee.


She says a day of recovery after surgery for patients in her mother’s age group feels like 10 days. “My mother said she would never go under the knife again.

她说,对于她妈妈这个年纪的患者来说,术后恢复期过一天的感觉像是十天。 “我妈妈说她再也不会动刀子了。”

(Via South China Morning Post)

越来越多老年人去做整形手术的背后是韩国步入老龄化社会 的现实。

In 2018, South Korea’s senior population – citizens aged 65 and above – represented more than 14 per cent of the population. That makes the country officially an “ageing society”, according to the United Nations’ definition. The governmental office of Statistics Korea has predicted the senior population will make up 41 per cent of the population by 2060.


(Via South China Morning Post)

报道提到,老年人的群体也是多层次 的。

Increased life expectancies mean a generational divide has opened up between seniors, separating those aged between 65 and 80 and those aged 80 to 100。


(Via South China Morning Post)

韩国一家老年人咨询中心的负责人Lee Hosun说,年轻一些的这个群体出生于1950年之前 ,是国家快速发展带来的教育、文化和经济红利的第一代受益者。

“Since they are used to developing and fine-tuning their life, they have a hard time accepting that they are prone to becoming lethargic in their lives,” explains Lee. “I think this period is a renaissance for seniors in our country, who are saying that they can change their lives according to their tastes as they did when they were in their youth.”

“由于他们习惯于开发新生活,很难接受自己容易变得毫无生气,”Lee说。 “我认为这个时期是我们国家老年人崛起的时机,他们觉得他们可以根据自己的品位改变自己的生活,就像他们年轻时一样。”

(Via South China Morning Post)



“If plastic surgery is the trend now, I think future generations will adopt a surgery of the mind when they become the seniors of the population,” Lee says. “This means that they will naturally accept their physical ageing and realise that a young life is not limited to the physical body but is also related to a person’s social contribution.”

“如果说现在老年人整形手术已经是个趋势了,我认为未来几代人的观念在老了以后会发生变化,”李说。 “也就是说,他们会接受身体的衰老,并且意识到年轻的生命不仅限于身体,而且还与一个人的社会贡献有关。”

(Via South China Morning Post)