双语阅读,各大英文词典选出的2016年度词汇

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It has announced "youthquake", referring to the rallying of young people by Jeremy Corbyn's Labour Party during the 2017 General Election, as its word of the year.

各大英文词典选出了哪些2016年度词汇?跟哪些事件有关?

Lexicon Leaders: Words of the Year

2018 was toxic.

日前牛津词典宣布“青年震荡”被评为年度词汇(as its word of the year.作为年度词汇)。“青年震荡”指的是2017英国大选期间杰里米•科尔宾领导的工党拉拢年轻人(rallying)的行为。

  1. post-truth(后真相)Oxford Dictionaries牛津词典**)(

① As December turns to January, dictionary-publishers and others name their words of the year.

2018年是“有毒的”。

The word saw a 400 percent increase in usage between 2016 and 2017, and "highlights the increased awareness of young people’s capacity to influence, and even drive, political change," it said.

After much discussion, debate, and research, the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2016 is post-truth– an adjective defined as ‘relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief’.

② For 2017 Merriam-Webster, an American publisher, went with "feminism", in recognition of the activism of the Women's March and the #MeToo movement denouncing sexual harassment.

That's the view of the esteemed?Oxford Dictionaries. It has chosen the word as its annual "Word of the Year".

牛津词典称,该词在2016年至2017年间的使用率(increase in usage )增加了400%,而且“凸显出(highlights)人们更多地意识到年轻人影响甚至驱动政治变化的能力”。

牛津词典将“post-truth”选为2016年度词汇。post-truth定义为“在塑造公共舆论方面,客观事实不如情感和个人信念更有影响力”。

③ Dictionary.com chose "complicit", much looked-up on its website after Ivanka Trump was asked if she was complicit in her father's actions as president.

这是著名的《牛津词典》的看法。《牛津词典》近日将toxic这个词选为其2018年度词汇。

Casper Grathwohl, president of Oxford Dictionaries, said youthquake had taken the top spot because it was a "rare political word that sounds a hopeful note”.

The concept of post-truthhas been in existence for the past decade, but Oxford Dictionaries has seen a spike in frequency this year in the context of the EU referendum in the United Kingdom and the presidential election in the United States. It has also become associated with a particular noun, in the phrase post-truth politics.

④ Oxford Dictionaries puzzled readers with "youthquake", a wave of enthusiasm allegedly spotted several times this year in British politics (though the word itself seems little-used).

Defining the word as “poisonous”, Oxford said it had become a “descriptor for the year’s most talked about topics”. The dictionary pointed to a 45% rise in the number of times the word has been looked up on its website, and said it best captured “the ethos, mood, or preoccupations” of 2018.

牛津词典总裁卡斯帕•格拉斯沃说,‘青年震荡’居首(taken the top spot  处于第一位)是因为这是“罕见(rare)的一个让人燃起希望(sounds a hopeful 拥有希望)的政治词汇”。

“post-truth”成为牛津词典2016年度词汇,与英国脱欧公投和美国总统大选有关。相关的名词是“post-truth politics(后真相政治)”。

⑤ Collins, another dictionary-publisher, went with "fake news", Donald Trump's go-to riposte to unwelcome press.

《牛津词典》表示,“有毒的”(toxic)已经成为“2018年最热议话题的主题词”。“有毒的”在牛津词典网站的搜索次数增加了45%,精准地体现出2018年的“气质、情绪或关注焦点”。

"Sometimes you pick a word as the Word of the Year because you recognize that it has arrived, but other times you pick one that is knocking at the door and you want to help usher in," he said.

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⑥ Last to announce its choice is the American Dialect Society, which will do so on January 5th at its annual conference, being held in Salt Lake City.

First appearing in English in the mid-17th century, from the medieval Latin toxicus, “toxic” has also been used to describe workplaces, schools, relationships, cultures and stress over the last year.

他说:“有时候你将某个词选为年度词汇是因为你意识到它已经到来,但有些时候你选择某个词汇则是因为它虽然尚在门口(knocking at the door 在敲门),但你想把它迎进来(help usher in帮助进入)。”

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⑦ It will also pick words it deems "most useful" and "most likely to succeed"—plus a "WTF word of the year".

“Toxic”来源于中古拉丁文toxicus,在17世纪中期首次出现在英语里,在过去一年还被用来描述工作场所、学校、人际关系、文化和压力。

Corbyn engaged with the UK's foremost grime artists and spoke about topics such as housing and social justice in an attempt to woo younger voters - previously disengaged in politics - into voting for him.

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▍生词好句

It said the #MeToo movement "put the spotlight on toxic masculinity" while in politics the word has been applied to the "rhetoric, policies, agendas and legacies of leaders and governments around the globe."

英国工党领袖科尔宾(Corbyn)和英国一流的伦敦地下音乐人( foremost grime artists )交谈,讨论有关住房和社会公平等话题,试图赢得那些先前不参与政治(woo younger voters)的年轻人的选票。

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lexicon /ˈlɛksɪk(ə)n/: n. 词典;词汇表

《牛津词典》表示,“我也是”(MeToo)运动让人们关注到“有毒的男性气概”。而在政界,这一词汇用来形容“某些领导人和政府的花言巧语、政策、议题和政治遗产”。

This demographic overwhelming backed Corbyn, leading to seat gains such as Canterbury - a town with a large student group, but which had a 185-year period of always electing Conservative-allied MPs.

2. surreal(超现实)*(Merriam-Webster韦氏词典)*(

lexicography /ˌlɛksɪˈkɒɡrəfi/: n. 词典编纂学

However, the word was most associated with the word “chemical”, appearing most frequently in discussions about the environment, including “toxic substance”, “toxic gas”, “toxic waste” and “toxic air”.

这部分人群(demographic 愿意指人群)一边倒(overwhelming 势不可挡地)支持(backed    !!!back指支持啊啊啊!我还以为反对呢)科尔宾,最终助他赢得了坎特伯雷等选区的席位(seat gains)。拥有庞大学生群体的坎特伯雷在过去长达185年的时间里选举出的一直都是保守党一方的议员(Conservative-allied MPs.)

The Word of the Year for 2016 is surreal, with lookups of the word spiking for different reasons over the course of the year. Beginning with the Brussels terror attacks in March, major spikes included the days following the coup attempt in Turkey and the terrorist attack in Nice, with the largest spike in lookups for surreal following the U.S. election in November.

go with: 顺应 (本意:与……相配)

然而,这个词汇应用最广泛的含义还是“化学的”,它最频繁地出现在有关环境的讨论中,比如“有毒物”、“毒气”、“有毒废料”和“有毒的空气”。

Another, "Milkshake Duck", is something which "initially inspires delight on social media but is soon revealed to have a distasteful or repugnant past".

“surreal”成为韦氏词典2016年度词汇,与布鲁塞尔恐怖袭击、土耳其政变、尼斯恐怖袭击有关。在11月特朗普赢得美国总统大选之后,“surreal”的查询量达到最高。

in recognition of: 对……的表彰

The debate fostered by the Brexit vote has also been described as a toxic environment, said the dictionary, while social media platforms “have come under fire for the toxic impact they have on our mental health”.

另一个代表性词汇“奶昔鸭(Milkshake Duck)”指的是某人或某物“最初在社交媒体上讨人喜欢(delight受人喜欢有点怪哈哈,讨人喜欢是中文常用的词汇)但很快被发现(revealed to )不堪(distasteful令人不快)或令人厌恶的过往”。

The definition of surreal is: “marked by the intense irrational reality of a dream.” It’s a relatively new word in English, only dating back to the 1930s, derived from descriptions of the artistic movement of the early 1900s known as surrealism.

activism /ˈaktɪvɪz(ə)m/: n. 社会运动

《牛津词典》表示,英国脱欧公投引发的讨论也被形容为“有毒的环境”,社交媒体平台也因为“对人们的心理健康产生的‘有毒的影响’而遭到抨击”。

"Kompromat", a Russian word originally based on the English phrase "compromising material", means material used to blackmail or manipulate someone for political purposes.

“surreal”的意思是现实像梦境一样具有强烈的不合理性。

suffrage /ˈsʌfrɪdʒ/: n. 选举权

Last year's word of the year was 'youthquake', defined as ‘a significant cultural, political, or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people.’

“污点材料”(Kompromat败坏他人名声的材料)这个俄罗斯词语源于英文短语compromising material,意思是出于政治目的(for 这个for翻译成出于真的太棒啦,出于……目的political purposes.)用于敲诈或操控某人(manipulate someone)的材料。

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denounce /dɪˈnaʊns/: vt. 谴责

去年,《牛津词典》选择的年度词汇是“青年冲击”,指的是“年轻人的行为或影响带来的重要的文化、政治或社会变化”。

Others were more light-hearted. "Gorpcore", meaning the trend for wearing functional, outdoorsy clothing, also made the list, alongside "unicorn", referring to the trend for dousing anything from lattes to bagels in rainbow colours and glitter.

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sexual harassment /ˈharəsm(ə)nt, həˈrasm(ə)nt/: 性骚扰

Last week?Collins Dictionary?chose the term “single-use”, referring to products made to be used once and then thrown away, as its word of the year.

其他一些代表词就轻松一些(light-hearted. )。“户外运动风(Gorpcore)”指的是穿着功能性户外服装的潮流,“独角兽风”指的是把所有东西,从拿铁咖啡(lattes)百吉面包圈(bagels),都装饰得(dousing )五颜六色亮晶晶(rainbow colours and glitter.)。

3. Xenophobia(仇外)Dictionary.com)(

complicit /kəmˈplɪsɪt/: adj. 串通的

上周,《柯林斯词典》选择“一次性的”作为其年度词汇,指的是用后即弃的一次性产品。

Xenophobia成为Dictionary.com的2016年度词汇,与南非发生的袭击外籍劳工事件、英国脱欧、美国大选有关。

youthquake /ˈjuːθkweɪk/: n. 年轻震荡

Cakeism 蛋糕主义

Dictionary.com defines xenophobia as “fear or hatred of foreigners, people from different cultures, or strangers.” It can also refer to fear or dislike of customs, dress, and cultures of people with backgrounds different from our own.

allegedly /əˈlɛdʒɪdli/: adv. 据称

Primarily a word used in the UK, cakeism is the belief that it is possible to enjoy or take advantage of both of two desirable but mutually exclusive alternatives at once.

xenophobia意思是对外国人、来自不同文化的人以及陌生人的恐惧和憎恨,还可以是指对于背景不同于自己的人们的传统、服饰和文化充满恐惧和厌恶。

spot /spɒt/: vt. 瞥见

主要在英国使用,指的是相信有可能同时享受或利用到两种同样令人满意但又互斥的方案。

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go-to: adj. 最常使用的;最喜欢的

?

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riposte /rɪˈpɒst/: n. 反击

Gammon 腌猪腿

  1. Brexit (英国脱欧) (Collins Dictionary柯林斯词典)

Typically used in the UK as a derogatory term for an older middle-class white man whose face becomes flushed due to anger when expressing political (typically right-wing) opinions.

Brexit named word of the year by Collins Dictionary Widely used word to describe Britain's withdrawal from EU was a 'gift to headline writers everywhere,' says Collins.

主要在英国使用,是一个贬义词,指的是在表达政治观点(通常是右翼)时由于愤怒脸涨得通红的年龄较大的中年白人男性。

“Brexit”被选为柯林斯词典的2016年度词汇,当然与英国脱欧有关。

?

Gaslighting “煤气灯”

The action of manipulating someone by psychological means into accepting a false depiction of reality or doubting their own sanity.

通过心理手段让别人接受错误信息,或者怀疑自己失去理智,从而操控别人的行为。

Incel 非自愿独身者

Incel, short for ‘involuntarily celibate’, is used as a self-descriptor by members of an online subculture who typically deem themselves chronically unable to attract romantic or sexual partners. They hold views that are hostile towards to women and to men who are sexually active.

Incel是“非自愿独身者”的缩写,是网络上一些亚文化人群的自我描述用语。他们认为自己一直无法恋爱,也没有性伴侣。他们对女性和性生活活跃的男性都抱有敌视态度。

Orbiting 网魂不散

Orbiting is the action of abruptly withdrawing from direct communication with someone while still monitoring, and sometimes responding to, their activity on social media.

网魂不散指的是突然切断与某人的直接联系,但却又在社交媒体上关注、甚至有时回应某人的行为。

Overtourism 过度旅游

An excessive number of tourist visits to a popular destination or attraction, resulting in damage to the local environment and historical sites and in poorer quality of life for residents.

前往一个受欢迎的旅游目的地或景点的游客人数过多,导致当地环境和历史遗迹遭到破坏, 当地居民的生活质量下降。

Techlash 技术抵制

A strong and widespread negative reaction to the growing power and influence of large technology companies, particularly those based in Silicon Valley.

对大型科技公司日益增长的权力和影响的强烈且广泛的抵制,特别是对在硅谷的大公司。

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