The Oak Tree is the king of the Western trees: it has the majestic look with its large canopy top and a straight upward-growing trunk. Oaks are deciduous, meaning their leaves bloom and wither with the whim of seasons. .

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When spring comes, new leaves and new branches bud from scales on the sturdy old branches, and that announces the onset of the cycle: growing. Growing needs energy. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll in the leaves, into sugar - its own energy source. The sugar is passed down through the phloem in the trunk, to “feed” the whole tree and make all parts grow. Roots grow sideways to form a deep, broad root system, which functions to absorb water and minerals in the soil. The water and minerals then get transported up by the xylem to the leaves, where the photosynthesis process needs water as an essential input.

Vernalagnia. Derived from lagneia, a Greek word meaning "lust," vernalagnia is a more formal name for what’s otherwise known as "spring fever"—a brighter and often more romantic mood brought on by the return of fine weather in the spring. One 1958 medical dictionary described vernalagnia as the “awakening of sexual desire in the spring.”

必威 2不过,兰花的英文名就没有这么好听了,不仅不优雅,甚至名字还有点污。

Oak trees self pollinate, or in another word, they produce both female flower and male flowers. The seeds - the acorns, looking like Mr. Potato-head wearing an upside-down scale-skinned bowl, start to develop in those low-profile female flowers nestled among the leaves. Acorns will take one to two years to mature before they fall off the parent tree.

“Vernalagnia(春躁症)”来自希腊语单词“lagneia(情欲)”,与“spring fever(春心荡漾)”意思相同,即因春光明媚,人们心里感受到的一种更加愉悦而浪漫的情绪,vernalagnia是一种比较正式的说法。1958年版的医学词典对“vernalagnia”的解释是“春天性欲的觉醒”。


In summer, photosynthesis is fueled up by stronger sunlight and more rapid hydraulic cycles in hot temperatures. The tree increases in height, the trunk grows thicker and greener leaves cloud the tree top.

Reverdie Borrowed into English in the late 1800s, the word reverdie has a long history in its native French dating back as far as the 14th century at least: Derived from a verb, reverdir, meaning “to become green again,” a reverdie is a song, poem or dance performed in celebration of the return of the spring.


That lush blossom fades as the fall sneaks in: the leaves loses its green since they stop making chlorophyll in autumn, but puts on more red, orange and bronze thanks to the carotenoids and anthocyanins produced in them. Winter will see the whole tree falls asleep with bare branches - waiting for life to revive in the next spring. Oak Trees can live through some 600 such annual cycles.


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Valentining. Since the 19th century, the chirruping of birds during the spring mating season is known as valentining.

There are two etymologies for carnation, a term found in English in the early 1500s。 According to one, carnation may be a corruption of coronation, perhaps because the flower‘s toothed petals resembled crowns or because the flowers were worn, crown-like, as garlands。



Chelidonize. If you want to be even more specific, though the verb chelidonize is a proper word for the chirping of swallows as they fly overhead. It derives from the Greek word for swallow, chelidon—which is also the origin of the 17th century adjective Chelidonian.

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The second etymology comes from the flower‘s original color, and roots carnation in the Middle French carnation, “pink complexion”, from the Latin root caro, “flesh”, source of less delicate words like carnal and carnage。

Chelidonian. As well as being used to describe anything the deep red color of a swallow’s throat, Chelidonian winds are warm spring winds, so called because they tended to start blowing around the same time that swallows and martins began to return in the spring.


“Chelidonian”除了可以指代像燕子喉咙部位的深红色一样的颜色之外,“Chelidonian winds”还有和煦春风的意思,这样表述是因为春风轻拂大地之时正是燕子归巢的时候。


Erumpent, breard. A word for the re-emerging of plants above the ground in spring, the 17th century adjective erumpent describes anything that bursts forth. The very first appearance of a plant above the ground, incidentally, is called the breard.



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Frondescentia, frondescent, frondescence, and frondesces.According to an 18th century dictionary of botanical terms, Frondescentia is “leafing season,” or “the time of the year when plants first unfold their leaves.” Likewise, a plant that is frondescent is just beginning to bud or produce leaves; frondescence is the process of budding or producing leaves; and when a plant frondesces, then it grows or puts forth leaves or buds. All four of these come from the Latin word for “leaf,” frons.

The word chrysanthemum, emerging in English in the late 1500s, comes from the Greek krysanthemon, meaning “gold flower”。 The first component, krysos (“gold”), shows up in the biological term chrysalis。



Routering-bout. Router is an old Yorkshire dialect word meaning “to rush around noisily,” or, as the English Dialect Dictionary puts it, “to make a search amidst a confusion of things.” Derived from that, a routering-bout is a thorough spring-cleaning of a house.

必威 6莫奈笔下的菊花


The second, anthos (“flower”), appears in anthology, literally “a collection of flowers”, first used for a compilation of small poems in the early 1600s。

Floriage, floriation, and efflorescence. Coined in the 18th century, floriage is blossom, or the collective flowers of a plant or tree. Likewise, a floriation is a decoration made of flowers, while efflorescence is the development or production of blossoming flowers.

Anthos表示“花朵”,它也是anthology的词根。Anthology意为 “鲜花大全”,在17世纪初期时,这个单词用来表示短诗集。





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The word daisy has deep roots in the English language。 As attested to in some of English‘s earliest records, daisy comes from the Old English phrase dægesege: the “day’s eye”, as the flower‘s white petals close at dusk and open at dawn, like the eye of the day as it sleeps and wakes。




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The anemone is also known as the windflower。 Indeed, the word anemone, first attested in English in the mid-1500s, probably comes from a Greek word literally meaning “daughter of the wind”。


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It‘s said that the brightly colored petals of this flower only opened when the wind blew。 Sea anemones took their names in the late 1700s on their likeness to the flowers。

据说,明媚鲜艳的银莲花只有在风吹过时才会绽放。因为银莲花和海葵有几分相似,到18世纪末期时,人们将海葵(一种长在水中的食肉动物)称为sea anemone。



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The name forget-me-not was a direct translation from the Old French ne m‘oubliez mye (“do not forget me”)。

勿忘我的英文名字forget-me-not直接翻译自古法语“ne m‘oubliez mye(勿忘我)”。

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Renaissance romantics believed that, if they wore these soft-colored flowers, they would never be forgotten by their lovers, making the flower a symbol of fidelity and everlasting love。




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Orchids are a diverse family of extremely elegant flowers, but the literal meaning of their name, documented in English in the early 1840s, is a bit earthier, shall we say。


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Orchid comes from the Greek orkhis, meaning “testicle”。 The flower‘s bulbous roots, often paired, have long been thought to resemble those male organs。




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The peony, a word found in Old English, was believed to have healing properties in early medicine, which is why its name might honor Paion, the physician of the gods in Greek mythology。




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必威,Like many other flower names, rhododendron enters the English record in the mid-1500s。 The name literally means “rose tree” in Greek。 It‘s an apt name, for this shrub or small tree blooms with brilliant, rose-colored flowers。




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Passing into English via Dutch or German in the late 1500s, tulip actually comes from the Turkishtülbent, based on the Persian dulband: “turban”。


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The flower, to its ancient namers, resembled the male headwear worn throughout the Middle East, India, and parts of Africa。




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Before we had the color violet, recorded by the late 1300s, we had the flower violet, emerging some decades earlier in the same century。


Violet grows out of the French violete or violette, a diminutive of viole, in turn the Latin viola, its name for this distinctively purple flower。

Violet来自于法语中的 violete或violette,它们是viole的指小词,而viole来自于拉丁语单词 viola,也就是拉丁语中对这种独特的紫色花朵的称呼。

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This viola has no etymological relationship to the instrument。 Some scholars suspect Latin got viola from the Greek name for the plant, ion。