Stephen Hawking redefined cosmology by proposing that black holes emit radiation and later evaporate. PHOTO: PAUL ALERS

His life story was the subject of the 2014 film The Theory of Everything, starring Eddie Redmayne

‘‘We are deeply saddened that our beloved father passed away today,’’ his children Lucy, Robert and Tim said in the statement.


With Penrose, Hawking used Einstein’s theory of relativity to trace the origins of time and space to a single point of zero size and infinite density. Their work gave mathematical expression to the Big Bang theory.

Born 8 January 1942 in Oxford, England

His other popular books included The Universe in a Nutshell (2001), On the Shoulders of Giants (2002), A Briefer History of Time (2005) and The Grand Design (2010).

The British theoretical physicist was known for his groundbreaking work with black holes and relativity, and was the author of several popular science books including A Brief History of Time.

Hawking died peacefully at his home in Cambridge in England in the early hours of Wednesday (GMT), a spokesman for his family said.

By 1963, was diagnosed with motor neurone disease and given two years to live

In 2015, Eddie Redmayne won an Oscar for his portrayal of Hawking in The Theory of Everything .


By 2017 Hawking was spending more time pondering humanity’s future and concluding we should plan to colonise other planets.


However, as the illness progressed more slowly than expected and he found inspiration in his girlfriend, Jane Wilde, Hawking began to work at his studies for the first time. He completed his doctorate on the origins of the universe, became a research fellow at Caius College and married Wilde in 1965.

必威 1

‘‘This is partly because scientists, apart from Einstein, are not widely known rock stars, and partly because I fit the stereotype of a disabled genius.’’

"He was a great scientist and an extraordinary man whose work and legacy will live on for many years."

‘‘We are running out of space, and the only place we can go to are other worlds,’’ he told a gathering of scientists.


Black holes are formed when a massive star collapses under the weight of its own gravity. Detected by the movement of surrounding matter, they devour everything in their path and may play a role in the birth of galaxies. Physicists say these invisible cosmic vacuums might allow travel through time and space via ‘‘wormholes’’, a favourite of sciencefiction writers.

They praised his "courage and persistence" and said his "brilliance and humour" inspired people across the world.

Often referred to as ‘‘one of the most unread books of all time’’ for its hardto-grasp concepts, the book included only one equation: E = mc2 or the equivalence of mass and energy, which had been deduced by Einstein from his theory of special relativity. The book outlined the basics of cosmology for the general reader.


In 1970, Hawking realised the mathematical approaches he developed with Roger Penrose could be applied to black holes, a term coined by physicist John Wheeler. Hawking worked for the next four years on black holes, discovering they weren’t totally black, but leaked radiation, now known as ‘‘Hawking radiation’’.


At age 8, Hawking moved with his family to St Albans, where he went to school. He then graduated with firstclass honours in natural science at Oxford’s University College. While he was a doctoral candidate at Cambridge, Hawking was diagnosed with ALS, also known as motor neuron disease. He was told he had only a few years to live.


Hawking suffered from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, and was confined to an electric wheelchair for much of his adult life. Diagnosed at age 21, he was one of the world’s longest survivors of ALS.

Published his book A Brief History of Time in 1988, which has sold more than 10 million copies

A Cambridge University professor, Hawking redefined cosmology by proposing that black holes emit radiation and later evaporate. He also showed that the universe had a beginning by describing how Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity eventually breaks down when time and space are traced back to the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago.

Factfile: Stephen Hawking

Hawking applied quantum theory – about the forces governing the subatomic world – to black holes, which he claimed discharge radiation that causes them to disappear. This process helps explain the notion that black holes have existed at a micro level since the Big Bang, and the smaller they are, the faster they evaporate.


Stephen William Hawking was born in Oxford on January 8, 1942, exactly 300 years after the death of Italian physicist Galileo Galilei. Hawking’s father, Frank, was a doctor of tropical medicine. His mother, Isobel, was a tax inspector and a secretary. He had two younger sisters and a brother.


‘‘Stephen’s remarkable combination of boldness, vision, insight and courage have enabled him to produce ideas that have transformed our understanding of space and time, black holes and the origin of the universe,’’ James Hartle, professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, said in 2002.

Stephen Hawking has died at the age of 76, his family has said.

A Brief History of Time , first published in 1988, earned its author worldwide acclaim, selling at least 10 million copies in 40 languages and staying on the best seller list of the UK’s Sunday Times newspaper for a record 237 weeks.

必威 ,Earned place at Oxford University to read natural science in 1959, before studying for his PhD at Cambridge

‘‘He was a great scientist and an extraordinary man whose work and legacy will live on for many years. His courage and persistence with his brilliance and humour inspired people across the world. He once said, ‘It would not be much of a universe if it wasn’t home to the people you love.’ We will miss him forever.’’

Outlined his theory that black holes emit "Hawking radiation" in 1974

Stephen Hawking, the British physicist and black-hole theorist who brought science to a mass audience with the best-selling book A Brief History of Time , has died. He was 76.

The scientist gained popularity outside the academic world and appeared in several TV shows including The Simpsons, Red Dwarf and The Big Bang Theory.

Obituary Theoretical physicist broke barriers in expanding our understanding of the universe.

His children, Lucy, Robert and Tim, said: "We are deeply saddened that our beloved father passed away today.

‘‘It is time to explore other solar systems. Spreading out may be the only thing that saves us from ourselves. I am convinced that humans need to leave Earth.’’


Hawking separated from his wife in 1991 and married his nurse, Elaine Mason, four years later. They divorced in 2007.


‘‘To my colleagues, I’m just another physicist, but to the wider public, I became possibly the best-known scientist in the world,’’ Hawking wrote in his 2013 memoir My Brief History .


Hawking’s fame increased as his health worsened. After his degenerative muscle disorder was diagnosed, he defied medical opinion by living for five decades longer than expected. He communicated his ideas through an American-accented speech synthesiser after a life-saving tracheotomy in 1985 took away his ability to speak. To the layman, the robot-like voice only seemed to give his words added authority.

For 30 years, Hawking was Cambridge’s Lucasian professor of mathematics, a chair once held by Isaac Newton. US President Barack Obama awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Hawking in 2009.